Cellular microenvironment is the reduced space
around a cell or a biological multicellular structure in
which there are cells, extracellular matrix, enzymes, signal
proteins. Between the cells and cellular microenvironment
elements a regular exchange of signals is possible.
By expanding to solid tumors the space around the
tumor is considered as a tumor microenvironment formed
by the same elements as the cell microenvironment.
Cellular microenvironment provides and promotes
normal cell development.
Tumor microenvironment provides and promotes
tumor development at all stages of its development
including metastasation, site preparation of metastatic cell
attachment situs (premetastatic niche).
It was observed that the tumor microenvironment, in
particular cells, gain important protumoral properties.
Moreover, it was observed that the tumor
microenvironment acts as a true biological barrier that
protects tumor action of host defense mechanisms
(immunological and non-immunological) or the action of
There are presented the main causes modifications of
microenvironnent of tumor cells to become protumoral,
suppression of adoptive and innate immune response and
thrapeutic prospects by the action of the cellular elements
that compose the tumor microenvironment.